The following bibliography of papers, reports and texts was compiled by Bruce Baker. If you would like to suggest additions, please contact Bruce Baker.
Use the alphabet below to jump directly to authors by surname.
Abel, R.L. (1995) Politics by Other Means - Law in the Struggle against Apartheid 1980 - 1944. London: Routledge.
Abdulrahman, I. & Tar, U. (2008), ‘Conflict management and peacekeeping in Africa: the role of state and nonstate agencies’, Information Society and Justice, 1, 2: 185-202
Abrahams, R. (1987), 'Sungsungu: Village Vigilante Groups in Tanzania', African Affairs, 86, 179-90.
Abrahamsen, R. (2010) Privatising Africa’s Everyday’s Security, OpenDemocracy http:www.opendemocracy.net
Abrahamsen, R.; Williams, M. 2008. ‘Public/Private, Global/Local: The Changing Contours of Africa's Security Governance’, Review of African Political Economy, 35, 118: 539-553.
Abrahamsen, R and Williams, M. (2007), ‘Securing the City: Private Security Companies and Non-State Authority in Global Governance’. International Relations, 21: 237-253.
Adamu, F. 2008, ‘Gender, hisba and the enforcement of morality in Northern Nigeria’, Africa, 78(1):: 136-52.
Ade Ajayi and Crowder, M. (1974), History of West Africa, Vol.2, London: Longman.
Adeyemi, A.A. (1994) 'Personal Reparations in Africa: Nigeria and Gambia', in Zvekic, U. (ed). Alternatives to imprisonment in comparative perspective, Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers. 53-66.
Adinkrah, K.O. (1991) 'We shall take our case to the King: legitimacy and tradition in the administration of law in Swaziland', Comparative and International Journal of Southern Africa, 24: 226-239.
Addo, P. (2002). Key Issues in Contemporary Ghanaian Policing : identifying reform priorities. Legon: ASDR.
Adu-Mireku, S. (2002), 'Fear of Crime among Residents of Three Communities in Accra, Ghana', International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 43, 2, 153-168.
Ahire, P. (1990), 'Re-Writing the Distorted History of Policing in Colonial Nigeria', International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 18, 45-60.
Ahire, P. (1991), Imperial Policing in Colonial Nigeria, 1860-1960, Milton Keynes: Open University.
Akingbade, T. (2003), Industrial Security in Nigeria : Challenges & Prospects for the 21th Century, Authorhouse.
Akinyele, R. T. (2007). The Involvement of the Oodua People's Congress in Crime Control in Southwestern Nigeria. In L. Fourchard (Ed.), Gouverner les villes d'Afrique : Etat, gouvernement local et acteurs privés. Paris: Karthala
Albert, I., Awe, T., Herault, G.and Omitoogun, W. (1995) Informal Channels For Conflict Resolution In Ibadan, Nigeria.Ibadan: Institut fracais de recherché en Afrique.
Albrecht, P. and Jackson, P. (2009), Security System Transformation in Sierra Leone, 1997-2007. DFID: London
Albrecht, P. and Malan, M. Post-Conflict Peacebuilding and National "Ownership": Meeting the Challenges of Sierra Leone. Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre. 2006.
Alemayehu, Y. (1998) 'The Potential of Traditional Institutions in Ethiopia', in Petty & Brown (eds.) Justice for the children: challenges and practice in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Save the Children. p.96-98.
Alemika, E. (1993) 'Colonialism, State and Policing in Nigeria', Crime, Law and Social Change, 20, 187-219.
Alemika, E. (1988) Policing and Perceptions of Police in Nigeria, Police Studies, 11, 4: 161-176.
Alemika, E. (2003) Police Corruption and insecurity in Nigeria’ in S. Einstein et al eds. Police Corruption, Huntsville: Office of International Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University.
Alemika, E. (2005) Police oversight agencies in West Africa, available at www.policeaccountability.co.za.
Alemika, E. and Chukwuma (2000) Police-community violence in Nigeria, Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E. and Chukwuma (2003) Civilian oversight and accountability of police in Nigeria, Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E. and Chukwuma (2004) The poor and informal policing in Nigeria, Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E. and Chukwuma (2007) Criminal victimization, safety and policing in Nigeria, Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E., Igbo, E, and Nnorom, C. (2006) Criminal Victimization, Safety and Policing in Nigeria 2005. Lagos: CLEEN.
Alemika, E. O., (2007) Police reform in Africa: Issues and challenges. IDASA, Police reform in post-conflict African countries conference. Pretoria, South Africa 12-15 March 2007. Cape Town: Institute of Criminology.
Allott and Woodman (eds.) (1985) People's Law and State Law. Foris Publications. USA. 1985.
Allott, A.N. (1965) "The Future of African Law" in African Law: Adaptation and Development. Kuper, H and Kuper, (eds.).
Allott, A.N. (1968) "An Introduction to Legal Systems" in "African Law" Derret, D (eds.).
Allott, A.N. (1968). 'African Law', in Derrett, J.D. An Introduction to Legal Systems, Swet & Maxwell, p.131 -156.
Allott, N.M. (1980) The Limits of Law. Butterworths.
Allott, A.N.(1997). 'The People as Law Makers: Custom, Practice and Public Opinion as Sources of Law in African and England, in Journal of African Law. 21(1): 1-23.
Altbeker, A. (2001), 'Who are We Burying? The Death of a Soweto Gangster', in Steinberg, J. ed., Crime Wave: The South African Underworld and Its Foes, Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.
Altbeker, A. (1998), Solving Crime: The State of the SAPS Detective Service, Institute of Strategic Studies (ISS), monograph 31.
Alvazzi del Frate, Anna (1998), Victims
of Crime in the Developing World Publication 57, Rome: United Nations
Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
Amnesty International, (2002a) Policing to Protect Human Rights: A Survey of Police Practice in Countries of the Southern African Development Community, 1997-2002, Amnesty International Publications, London.
Amnesty International (2002b), Southern Africa: Policing to Protect Human Rights: A Survey of Police Practices in Countries of the Southern African Development Community, 1997-2002, available at web.amnesty.org/library/index/ENGAFR030042002
Amnesty International (2007) Above the Law: police accountability in Angola, AI Index: AFR 12/005/2007
Anderson, D and Killingray, D. (1991) Policing the Empire, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Anderson, D and Killingray, D. (1991) Policing and decolonisation, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Anikulapo, J. 'Nigerias Bürger schützen sich selbst', taz 6216 (11.8.2000): 10.
Aning, E. (2006) ‘An Overview of the Ghana Police Servie’, Journal Of Security Sector Management, 4, 2.
Aning, E. (2002) ‘An Overview of the Ghana Police Service’. In Karikari, K. (ed.) The Face and Phases of the Ghana Police Service. Accra: GertMersh Publishing.
Anyanwu, Geoffrey (2007) “Tyranny of vigilance group: They brutalise residents over illegal levies”, Daily Sun (February 28, 2007), available at
Appiahene-Gyamfi, J. (2003) 'Urban Crime Trends and Patterns in Ghana: The Case of Accra', Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 1, 13-23.
Aremu, A., Pakes, F., Johnston, L. 2009. ‘The effect of locus of control in the reduction of corruption in the Nigerian police’. Policing, 32, 1: 144-56.
Arriola, L. R. (2013) ‘Protesting and policing in a multiethnic authoritarian state:
Assistance Committee (DAC), (2005) Security System Reform and Governance. Paris: OECD: 71–90.
Astrow, A. (1983), Zimbabwe: A Revolution that Lost its Way?, London: Zed.
Avant, D. (2007), ‘NGOs, Corporations and Security Transformation in Africa’. International Relations, 21: 143-161
Baker, B. (2002a), 'Living with Non-state Policing in South Africa: the Issues and Dilemmas', Journal of Modern African Studies, 40, 1, 29-53.
Baker, B. (2002b), Taking the Law into Their Own Hands, Aldershot: Ashgate.
Baker, B. (2002c), 'When the Bakassi Boys Came: Eastern Nigeria Confronts Vigilantism', Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 20, 2, 1-22.
Baker, B. (2003), 'Policing and the Rule of Law in Mozambique', Policing and Society, 13, 2, 139-158.
Baker, B. (2004a), 'Protection from Crime: What is on Offer for Africans?', Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 22, 2, 165-188.
Baker, B. (2004b), 'Post-conflict Policing: Lessons from Uganda 18 years on', Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, available at www.jha.ac posted July.
Baker, B. (2004c) 'Multi-choice Policing in Africa: is the Continent Following the South African Pattern?', Society in Transition, 35, 2, 204-223.
Baker, B. (2004d), 'Popular Justice and Policing from Bush war to Democracy: Uganda 1981-2004', International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 32, 333-348.
Baker, B. (2005), 'Multi-choice Policing in Uganda', Policing and Society, 15, 1, 19-41.
Baker, B. (2005b), 'Who do People Turn to for Policing in Sierra Leone?', Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 23, 3, 371-390.
Baker, B. (2005c), 'The Limits of Sovereignty: Policing in Urban Uganda and Sierra Leone', Contemporary Africa Review, 1, 48-52.
Baker, B. (2006a), 'Beyond the State Police in Urban Uganda and Sierra Leone', Afrikaspectrum, 41, 1, 55-76.
Baker, B. (2006b), 'The African post-conflict policing agenda in Sierra Leone', Conflict, Security & Development, 6, 1 (2006), 25-50.
Baker, B. 2008, ‘Beyond the Tarmac Road: Local Forms of Policing in Sierra Leone & Rwanda’, Review of African Political Economy, 35, 118: 555-570
Banal, L. and V. Scherrer. 2008. ONUB and the Importance of Local Ownership: The Case of Burundi. In Security Sector Reform and UN Integrated Missions: Experience from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, and Kosovo eds. H. Hänggi and V. Scherrer. Geneva: LIT / DCAF.
Banks, Philip A.Z. III, and Peter Serveraid, 2005, ‘Liberia Final Report’, Prepared for the role of informal justice systems in fostering the rule of law in post conflict societies, a project of the United States Institute of Peace and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, February 28, 2005.
Banseka, C. (2005), ‘The Anti-Gang Civil Militias [i.e. local plicing movement – BB] in
Baranyi, S. and Salahub, J.B., (2011). Police reform and democratic development in lower-profile fragile states. Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 321: 48-63.
Barya, J. and Oloka Onyango, J. (1994), Popular Justice and Resistance Committee Courts in Uganda, Kampala: New Visions Publishing.
Bassett, T. (2003), 'Dangerous Pursuits: Hunter Associations (donzo ton) and National Politics in Côte d'Ivoire', Africa, 73, 1, 1-30.
Bateley R. and Mcloughlin, C. (2100), ‘Engagement with nonstate service providers in fragile states: reconciling statebuilding and service delivery’, Development Policy Review, 28, 2: 131-154.
Becker, H. (1998) 'Gender Aspects of Traditional Authorities and Customary Courts in Northern Namibia: This new thing that came with independence' in D'Engelebronner-Kolff, Hinz and Sidano (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 5-16 November1995, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, pp 1257-288.
Becker, H. (1998) 'Premarital Female Sexuality and Customary Law in Northern Namibia' in, University Namibia, Human Rights and Democracy in Southern Africa. Papers presented at the conference Cultivating Co-operation among Human Rights Institutions in the UNITWIN Network in Southern Africa, New Namibia, Books, Windhoek. 215-245.
Beek, J. 2010. ‘Étiqueter les “déviants”: le travail des policiers au Nord Ghana’, Déviance et Société 34, 2: 279-290.
Bekker and Coertze (1982) Seymour's Customary Law in Southern Africa. 4th edition. Juta & Co.
Bekker, J. (1989), Customary Law in Southern Africa, Cape Town: Juta.
Bekoe, D., 2012. Elusive gains: Policing and security sector reform in Liberia. In Francis, D. J. eds., Policing in Africa. United States: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bekoe, D., 2012. Elusive Gains: Policing and Security Sector Reform in Liberia. In: D.J. Francis, ed. Policing in Africa. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 37–52.
Benit-Gbafou, C. 2008, ‘Community Policing and Disputed Norms for Local Social Control in Post-Apartheid Johannesburg, Journal of Southern African Studies, 34, 1: 93-108.
Bennett, T W. (1985). The Application of African Customary Law in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Juta.
Bennett, T.W. (1991). "The Compatibility of African Customary Law" in Acta Juridica, pp.18-36.
Bennett, T.W.(1991) "The Constitutional base of traditional rulers in South Africa in D"ENGELBRONNER-KOLFF, HINZ & SIDANO (eds), Traditional Authority and Democracy in Southern Africa, Proceedings from the workshop, Traditional Authorities in the Nineties - Democratic Aspects of Traditional Government in Southern Africa, 15-16 November 1995, CASS, University of Namibia, New Namibia Books, Windhoek.
Bennett, TW (1991) A Sourcebook of African Customary Law for Southern Africa. Juta & Co.
Bennett, T.W. (1995). Human Rights and African Customary Law, Juta & Co. Ltd.
Bennett, T.W. (1996). Customary Law and the Constitution: A Background and Discussion Paper. Law Reform and Development Commission, Windhoek, Namibia.
Berg, J. (2003) Research on Police Accountability and Oversight Mechanisms in South Africa 1998-2003, Institute of Criminology, UCT, Cape Town.
Berg, J. & Schärf, W. (2004) "Crime Statistics in South Africa 1994-2003", SACJ, Vol. 17 No. 1.
Berg, J. (2005), Audit of police oversight
in the East African Region
Berg, J. (2007), Plural Policing in Cape Town: Recent Trends and Challenges to Oversight. Funded by the Open Society for South Africa. Cape Town: Centre of Criminology, University of Cape Town.
Berg, J. (2007), The Accountability of the South African Private Security Industry OSF-SA Monograph 2. Open Society Foundation for South Africa. Mkutu, K.; Sabala, K., ‘Mkutu, K.; Sabala, K., (2007), ‘Private Security Companies in Kenya and Dilemmas for Security’, Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 25, 3, 391-416.
Biddle, K, Clegg, L, Whetton, J, (1998), Evaluation of ODA/DFID Support to the Police in Developing Countries - Synthesis Study, Centre for Development Studies, Swansea.
Bierwagen, R.M. and Peter, C.M. (1989) 'Administration of Justice in Tanzania and Zanzibar: A Comparison of Two Judicial Systems in One Country', International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol 38,pp395-411.
Bierschenk, T. 2008. ‘The everyday functioning of an African public service. Informalization, privatization and corruption in Benin’s legal system’, Journal of Legal Pluralism 57: 101–139.
Bilkis Omar, 2007, SAPS' Costly Restructuring: A Review of Public Order Policing Capacity, ISS Monograph 138.
Bisimba, K. (2002), ‘Perspectives on Tanzania’s Non-Formal Systems of Justice’ Vol.8, No.1, East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights, 8, 1.
Blaney, J and Jacques Paul Klein, and Sean McFate, (2010). ‘Wider Lessons for Wider Lessons for Peacebuilding: Security Sector Reform in Liberia,’ Policy Analysis Brief (The Stanley Foundation, June 2010). http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/publications/pab/LiberiaPAB610.pdf.
Bloh, O., 2011. Security Sector Reform In Liberia: a Case Of The Liberian National Police And Its Capacity To Respond To Internal Threat In The Wake Of UNMIL Drawdown In 2012. Search for Common Ground.
Bøås, M. and Stig, K., 2010. Security Sector Reform in Liberia: An Uneven Partnership without Local Ownership. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 4 (3), 285–303
Blume, T. (2008), Implementing the Rule of Law in Integrated Missions: Security and Justice in the UN Mission in Liberia, Journal of Security Sector Management, 6, 3.
Boggero, M. 2008. Local Dynamics of Security in Africa: The Central African Republic and Private security. African Security Review 17(2): 15-27.
Boko, D (2002) "Botswana", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Booth, A.R. (1992) 'European Courts Protect Women and Witches: Colonial Law Courts as Redistributors of Power in Swaziland 1923-1950, Journal of Southern African Studies. 18(2): 253-275.
Boskati, E. (1997) "The Future of Popular Justice: A Qualitative Approach to the Problems and/or Challenges Faced by Organs of Popular Justice in the Western Cape Substructures". Unpublished Dissertation. University of Cape Town.
Bouman, M. (1984). Crime and Punishment
in Botswana, unpublished MA Thesis, Law
Bouman, M. (1987), 'A Note on Chiefly and National Policing in Botswana', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 25&26, 275-300.
Brogden, M and Shearing, C. (1993) "Policing for a New South Africa". Routledge. London.
Brogden, M. (2004), 'Commentary: Community Policing: A Panacea from the West', African Affairs, 103, 413, 635-49.
Brogden, M. and Shearing, C. (1993), Policing for a New South Africa, London: Routledge.
Brodgen, M., (1987). The emergence of the police – The colonial dimension. Brit. J. Criminol. 27 (1): 4-14.
Brooke, N.J. (1954) 'The Changing Character of Customary Courts, Journal of African Administration, 6:67.
Brooks, D. (2000), 'Write a Cheque, End a War: Using Private Military Companies to End African Conflicts', Conflict Trends, available at http://www.foxnews.com/world/062300/un_broder.sml
Bruce, D. and Neild, R. (2003), The Police that we Want: A Handbook for the Oversight of Police in South Africa, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation.
Bruce, D., Savage, K. and J. De Waal (2000) 'A Duty to Answer Questions? The Police, the Independent Complaints Directorate and the Right to Remain Silent' SAJHR, Vol. 16, Part 1.
Bruce, D. and Komane, J. (1999), Taxis, Cops and Vigilantes: Police Attitudes Towards Street Justice, Crime and Conflict, 17, 39-44.
Bruce, D. (2002) "South Africa", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Bruce, D. (2003a) "Killing and the Constitution - Arrest and the Use of Lethal Force", South African Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 19 No. 3: http://www.csvr.org.za/papers/papbruc8.htm.
Bruce, D. (2003b) "Gripes or Grievances? What the Independent Complaints Directorate Statistics Tell Us (Or Not)", SA Crime Quarterly, 4, June: http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/CrimeQ/No.4/5ICD.html .
Bukurura, S. (1994), 'The Maintenance of Order in Rural Tanzania: Tthe Case of Sungsungu', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 34, 1-29.
Burman, S. and Scharf, W. (1990), 'Creating People's Justice: Street Committees and People's Courts in a South African City', Law and Society Review, 24, 3, 693-744.
Buur, L. 2005, ‘Sovereignty and Democratic Exclusion in the New South Africa’, Review of African Political Economy, 104, 5: 253-268.
Buur, L. (2006), ‘Reordering society: Vigilantism and sovereign expressions in Port Elizabeth’s townships’, Development and Change, 37, 4: 735-757.
Buur, L. and Stepputat, F. (2007) The Security-Development Nexus: Expressions of Sovereignty and Sensitization in Southern Africa, Stockholm: Nordic Africa Institute.
Bush, R.A. (1979) 'A Pluralistic Understanding of Access to Justice: Developments in Systems of Justice in African Nations', in Cappelletti and Garth (eds), 1979. Access to Justice (Volume III): Emerging Issues and Perspectives, The Florence Access to Justice Project, Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 261-310.
Buur, L. and Jensen, S. Vigilantism and the Policing of Everyday Life in South Africa. African Studies 63, no. 2 (2004): 139-152.
Buur, L. (2003a), 'Vigilantism and the Policing of Everyday Life in South Africa', paper presented for ROAPE conference: Africa: Partnership as Imperialism, September 5-7 2003, Birmingham University.
Buur, L. 2008, ‘Democracy & its Discontents: Vigilantism, Sovereignty & Human Rights in South Africa’, Review of African Political Economy, 35, 118: 571-584.
Caparini, M. and Marenin, O. eds., Managing International and Inter-agency Cooperation at the Border, Nomos: Baden Baden, Germany, forthcoming, 2006
Carlston, K. (1968), Social Theory and African Tribal Organization, Urbana: University of Chicago Press.
Carstens, P. (2001), In the Company of Diamonds: De Beers, Kleinzee, and the Control of a Town, Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press.
Casey, C. 2007, ‘Policing through Violence: Fear, Vigilantism and the Politics of Islam in Northern Nigeria’, in Pratten, D. and Sen, A. eds., Global Vigilantes, London: Hurst.
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, ‘Rule of Law through imperfect bodies? The informal justice systems of Burundi and Somalia’, no date.
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, 2005, ‘Stateless Justice in Somalia: Formal and Informal Rule of Law Initiatives’.
Chanda, K. (2002) "Zambia", in N. Mwanajiti, P. Mhlanga, M. Sifuniso, Y. Nachali-Kambikambi, M. Muuba, and M. Mwananyanda (eds.), Police Brutality in Southern Africa - A Human Rights Perspective, Inter-African Network for Human Rights and Development (Afronet), Lusaka.
Chanda, A.W. (2004) Lecture Series: Human Rights for Law Enforcement Officers, the Zambia Legal Information Institute: http://www.zamlii.ac.zm/media/news/viewnews.cgi?category=2&id=1069084655 .
Chanock, M. (1978 ) "Neotraditionalism and Customary Law in Malawi', African Law Studies,16: 80-91.
Chanock, M. (1985). Law, Custom and Social Order: The Colonial Experience in Malawi and Zambia. Cambridge University Press.
Channock, M. (1991) ''Law, State and Culture: Thinking about 'Customary Law' after Apartheid', Acta Juridica, 53-70.
Chazan, N. (1988), 'Ghana: Problems of Governance and the Emergence of Civil Society', in L. Diamond, J. Lintz, and S. Lipset (1988), eds., Democracy in Developing Countries: Africa, Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
Chiba, M.(1986) Asian indigenous Law, KPI Publishers.
Chiba, M. (1993 ) "Legal Pluralism in Sri Lankan Society: Towards a General Theory of Non-Western Law', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 33: 197-212.
Chimango, L.J. (1977) 'Tradition and the Traditional Courts of Malawi', Comparative and International Law in Southern Africa, 10:39-66.
Chingono, M. (1996), The State, Violence and Development: The Political Economy of War in Mozambique, 1975-92, Aldershot: Avebury.
Chukwuma, I. (2001), 'Police Transformation in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects', paper presented at 'Crime and Policing in Transitional Societies', Conference held August 30 - September 1 2000, South Africa, available at www.kas.de/proj/home.
Clairmont, D. (1996) Alternative Justice Issues For Aboriginal Justice. Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law. No. 36. Pp 125 - 157.
Clapham, C. (1999), 'African Security Systems: Privatisation and the Scope for Mercenary Activity' in Greg Mills and John Stremlau, eds., The Privatisation of security in Africa, Johannesburg: South African Institute of International Affairs, 23-45.
Clayton, A. (1989), 'Law Enforcement and Colonial Police Forces', in A. Clayton and D. Killingray, Khaki and Blue: Military and Police in British Colonial Africa, Athens, OH: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 67-78.
Clayton, A. and Killingray, D. (1989), Khaki and Blue: Military and Police in British Colonial Africa, Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies.
Coalition on Violence Against Women (2002), In Pursuit of Justice: A Research Report on Service Providers' Response to Cases of Violence Against Women in Nairobi Province, COVAW- Kenya.
Cohen, S. (1986), 'Bandits, Rebels, or Criminals: African History and Western Criminology', Africa, 54, 468-483.
Cole, Abdun Tejan, and Mohamed Gibril Sesay, 2005, ‘Justice Systems and the Rule of Law in Post Conflict Sierra Leone’.
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative & Kenya Human Rights Commission, (2006), The Police, The People, The Politics: Police Accountability in Kenya.
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI). (2006). Reports on Policing in East Africa. http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/nl/newsletter_summer_2006/article8.htm
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative. (2006). The Police, The People, The Politics : police accountability in Kenya. www.humanrightsinitiative.org/publications/police/kenya_country_report_2006.pdf
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (2006) The police, the people, the politics: police accountability in Uganda, New Delhi: CHRI.
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (2007) The police, the people, the politics: police accountability in Ghana, New Delhi: CHRI.
Conciliation Resources, ‘A path to peace: Indigenous conflict transformation and peace building in southern Sierra Leone’, www.c-r.org/resources/occasional-papers/path-to-peace.php.
Cooney, M. (1994) 'The Informal Social Control of Homicide', Journal of Legal Pluralism, 34:31-59.
Comaroff, J. & J. Comaroff. 2008. ‘Popular Justice in the New South Africa: policing the boundaries of freedom’, in T. R. Tyler, ed.Legitimacy and Criminal Justice: a comparative perspective. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 215–237.
Corey-Boulet, R., 2013. Vigilante Groups in Liberia Serve as Shadow Police Force [online]. VOA. Available from: http://www.voanews.com/content/vigilante-groups-in-liberia-serve-as-shadow-police-force/1748327.html [Accessed 11 Oct 2013].
Cotran, E & Rubin, N.N. (1970). Readings in African Law. Frank Cass & Co.
Crais, C. (1998) Of Men, Magic, and the Law. Popular Justice and the Political Imagination in South Africa, South African and Contemporary History seminar, University of the Western Cape, no 84. Bellville, Institute for Historical Research, University of the Western Cape.
Cutshall, C.R. (1991). Justice for the People: Community Courts and Legal Transformation in Zimbabwe, University of Zimbabwe Publications.
Dagnino, Francesca (1998) "Mozambique: the Administration of Justice at the Local Level" in Österreichische aubenpolitische Dokumentation, Special Issue, Building Justice: A Conference on Establishing the Rule of Law in Post-Conflict Situations, Vienna, 26-27 June 1998.
DANIDA (1998), Baseline Survey on the Local Council Courts Systems in Uganda, Final Report, Danida.
Davey, B. (1983), Lawless and Immoral: Policing a Country Town 1838-57, Leicester: Leicester University Press.
Davidheisser, M. and Hultin, N., (2012). Policing the Post-colony: Legal pluralism, security, and social control in The Gambia. In Francis, D. J. eds., Policing in Africa. United States: Palgrave Macmillan.
Davis, R., Henderson, N. and Merrick, C. (2003), ‘Community Policing: Variations on the Western Model in the Developing World’, Police Practice and Research, 4, 3, 285-300.
Das, D. and Marenin, O. , eds. (2000), Challenges of Policing Democracies, Newark, NJ: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers
Davis, R., Henderson, N. and Merrick, C. (2003), 'Community Policing: Variations on the Western Model in the Developing World', Police Practice and Research, 4, 3, 285-300.
Deepa, N. with Patel, R., Schafft, K., Rademacher, A. and Koch-Schulte, S. (2000), Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us?, New York: Published for the World Bank, Oxford University Press.
Deflem, M. (1994), 'Law Enforcement in British Colonial Africa: A Comparative Analysis of Imperial Policing in Nyasaland, the Gold Coast, and Kenya', Police Studies, 17, 1, 45-68.
Deng, Francis. M. 2005, ‘Customary Law in the Cross-Fire of Sudan’s War of Identities’, A study for U.S. Institute of Peace.
D'Engelbronner-Kolff, F.M.(1998) 'The People as Law- makers: the Juridical Foundation of the Legislative Power of Namibian Traditional Communities', in
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